Publications

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1PHM-03-01Climate change and the abundance of edible insectsGlobal warming is adversely affecting the earth’s climate and its profound effects are virtually on all
ecosystem. Every living animal will be affected in one way or another by climatic changes and insects
being an integral biotic component of nearly all ecosystems are not an exemption. However, the various
ways by which change will occur is yet to be determined by scientists. Insects being an integral biotic
component of nearly all ecosystems will be affected by the change in a variety of ways not yet
determined by scientists. This partial review and empirical observation paper discusses how edible lake
flies in Lake Victoria and termites in the lake region are responding to climate change and how they are
likely to impact on entomophagy and gastrophagy as part of food chain among the riparian
communities. The dynamics of the insect population have been observed by several households that
collect the insects for domestic purposes. The focus is given to the lake flies (Ephemeroptera and
Diptera), termites (Isoptera) and formicidae ants (Hymenoptera) which form part of livestock and human
feed. Several factors of climate change are identified and discussed in relation to how they influence
insect abundance. Ability to respond successfully to challenges requiring a lot of collaboration across
different fields of study is solicited. It requires understanding of all stakeholders, how they will be
affected by climate change and strategic adaptive measures open to all. Analysis of impact on humans’
livelihoods with specific focus on developing countries is discussed. The interrelationship in the
metamorphosis of entomology and entomophagy in food production in the region is proposed.
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2EBH-03-01Climate change and the abundance of edible insectsGlobal warming is adversely affecting the earth’s climate and its profound effects are virtually on all ecosystem. Every living animal will be affected in one way or another by climatic changes and insects being an integral biotic component of nearly all ecosystems are not an exemption. However, the various ways by which change will occur is yet to be determined by scientists. Insects being an integral biotic component of nearly all ecosystems will be affected by the change in a variety of ways not yet determined by scientists. This partial review and empirical observation paper discusses how edible lake flies in Lake Victoria and termites in the lake region are responding to climate change and how they are likely to impact on entomophagy and gastrophagy as part of food chain among the riparian communities. The dynamics of the insect population have been observed by several households that collect the insects for domestic purposes. The focus is given to the lake flies (Ephemeroptera and Diptera), termites (Isoptera) and formicidae ants (Hymenoptera) which form part of livestock and human feed. Several factors of climate change are identified and discussed in relation to how they influence insect abundance. Ability to respond successfully to challenges requiring a lot of collaboration across different fields of study is solicited. It requires understanding of all stakeholders, how they will be affected by climate change and strategic adaptive measures open to all. Analysis of impact on humans’ livelihoods with specific focus on developing countries is discussed. The interrelationship in the metamorphosis of entomology and entomophagy in food production in the region is proposed. Download
3EBH-03-02 Determining and modeling the dispersion of non poLake Victoria is an important source of livelihood that is threatened by rising pollution. In this study, pollutants in runoff are characterized and their dispersion after they enter the lake is measured and modeled at different points in the study areas. The objective is to develop a one dimensional mathematical model which can be used to predict the nutrient (ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate) dispersion distances within the lake. A comparison between rain period nutrient concentrations and dry period nutrient concentrations within the Lake showed an elevation in nutrient levels during the rainy season, with exception of nitrate. However, nitrate had high levels during the dry season. Ammonia was found to disperse to horizontal distances of 38 m; nitrite 45 m, with nitrate and phosphate each attaining distances of 34 m. Measured nutrient concentration within the Lake compared well with model estimations. Download
4EBH-03-03Chemical composition of Cymbopogon citratus essentThis study evaluated the antifungal activity of essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae) against five mycotoxigenic species of the genus Aspergillus (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus) isolated from maize samples. The oil of C. citratus was obtained by hydro-distillation and analysed by Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The oil was dominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons which accounted for 94.25% of the total oil and characterised by a high percentage of geranial (39.53%), neral (33.31%), and myrecene (11.41%). The antifungal activity tests showed that the oil was active against all the five Aspergillus species. The extent of inhibition of fungal growth was dependent on the concentration of the oil. The activity of the oil against the mycotoxigenic fungi had Minimun Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values ranging from 15 to 118 mg/ml. These results show that the essential oil of C. citratus has antifungal activities against fungi that are the producers of poisonous mycotoxins found in foods. This oil can be used in food preservation systems to inhibit the growth of moulds and retard subsequent mycotoxin production. Download
5EBH-03-04Integrated Risk Assessment and Management of PolluVicres Pollution Cluster Position PaperDownload
6PHM-03-02EFFICACY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY COMMUNITIES AIn Africa more than 70% of the people refer to ethnomedicine for their health issues. With the emergence of new diseases and drug resistance to infections, traditional medicine should be given more attention in modern research and development. Tuberculosis (TB), a deadly infectious disease that annually kills about 3 million people worldwide is complicated. This is due to significant toxicity, emergence of multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB) and extensively drug resistant TB (XDR-TB) and lengthy therapy which creates poor patient compliance. There is also a major therapeutic problem due to emergence of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and other ß-lactamase producers. Diarrhoeal diseases are responsible for 4.6 million deaths every year. These highlight the need to develop novel drugs. Natural products provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads because of the unmatched chemical diversity. This study evaluated the antimicrobial potential of 34 medicinal plants used by communities living around the Lake Victoria region and the Samburu Community of northern Kenya, following an ethnobotanical survey. Plants were collected and identified at the Department of Pharmacy and Complimentary Alternative Medicine, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya; in whose herbarium voucher specimens were deposited. Methanolic extracts from plants were tested against four strains of Mycobacteria (Mycobacteria tuberculosis, M. kansasii, M. fortuitum, and M. smegmatis) obtained from Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Nairobi, Kenya. BACTEC MGIT 960 system was used. Salmonella typhi (clinical isolate), Klebsiella pneumoniae (clinical isolate), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 25852), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 20591) and Candida albicans (ATCC EK138), obtained from Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were also screened against using standard procedures. The crude extracts were analyzed for presence of phytochemicals. Croton macrostachyus, Vernonia amygdalina, Toddalia asiatica, Aloe secundiflora, Cordia sinensis, and Euphorbia scarlatina gave strong antimycobacterial activity (zero GUs) against M. kansasii, at all concentrations used. Entada abysinnica, T. asiatica, Salvadora persica, C. sinensis, Scadoxus multiflorus and E. scarlatina extracts were active (zero GUs) against M. tuberculosis. Extracts from Carissa edulis, V. amygdalina, A. secundiflora, Pistacia aethiopica, S. persica, S. multiflorus, E. scarlatina, and Acacia nilotica were active (zero GUs) against M. fortuitum. Against M. smegmatis, Carissa edulis, V. amygdalina, A. secundiflora, S. persica, S. multiflorus, E. scarlatina and A. nilotica were active (zero GUs). Eurphobia scarlatina was active (Zero GUs) against all the strains of mycobacteria. There was significant difference of the means of the zones of inhibition of the S. typhi, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans at P? 0.05. The MICs and the MBCs of the extracts were determined by use of microtitre plate method with E. abysinnica, T. asiatica, Thylachium africanum, A. secundiflora, A. nilotica and Momordica charantia extracts showing good activity with MICS and MBCS of 4.687- 18.75 mg/ml in some test cultures. Klebsiella pneumoniae and C. albicans were mostly insensitive to extracts. Preliminary phytochemistry identified six phytochemicals to which tannins were common in most plant extracts. The data suggests that plant extracts could be a rich source of antimicrobial agents. Results also provide an indication of merit in their ethnomedicinal use. Download
7PHM-03-02EFFICACY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY COMMUNITIES AIn Africa more than 70% of the people refer to ethnomedicine for their health issues. With the emergence of new diseases and drug resistance to infections, traditional medicine should be given more attention in modern research and development. Tuberculosis (TB), a deadly infectious disease that annually kills about 3 million people worldwide is complicated. This is due to significant toxicity, emergence of multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB) and extensively drug resistant TB (XDR-TB) and lengthy therapy which creates poor patient compliance. There is also a major therapeutic problem due to emergence of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and other ß-lactamase producers. Diarrhoeal diseases are responsible for 4.6 million deaths every year. These highlight the need to develop novel drugs. Natural products provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads because of the unmatched chemical diversity. This study evaluated the antimicrobial potential of 34 medicinal plants used by communities living around the Lake Victoria region and the Samburu Community of northern Kenya, following an ethnobotanical survey. Plants were collected and identified at the Department of Pharmacy and Complimentary Alternative Medicine, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya; in whose herbarium voucher specimens were deposited. Methanolic extracts from plants were tested against four strains of Mycobacteria (Mycobacteria tuberculosis, M. kansasii, M. fortuitum, and M. smegmatis) obtained from Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Nairobi, Kenya. BACTEC MGIT 960 system was used. Salmonella typhi (clinical isolate), Klebsiella pneumoniae (clinical isolate), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 25852), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 20591) and Candida albicans (ATCC EK138), obtained from Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were also screened against using standard procedures. The crude extracts were analyzed for presence of phytochemicals. Croton macrostachyus, Vernonia amygdalina, Toddalia asiatica, Aloe secundiflora, Cordia sinensis, and Euphorbia scarlatina gave strong antimycobacterial activity (zero GUs) against M. kansasii, at all concentrations used. Entada abysinnica, T. asiatica, Salvadora persica, C. sinensis, Scadoxus multiflorus and E. scarlatina extracts were active (zero GUs) against M. tuberculosis. Extracts from Carissa edulis, V. amygdalina, A. secundiflora, Pistacia aethiopica, S. persica, S. multiflorus, E. scarlatina, and Acacia nilotica were active (zero GUs) against M. fortuitum. Against M. smegmatis, Carissa edulis, V. amygdalina, A. secundiflora, S. persica, S. multiflorus, E. scarlatina and A. nilotica were active (zero GUs). Eurphobia scarlatina was active (Zero GUs) against all the strains of mycobacteria. There was significant difference of the means of the zones of inhibition of the S. typhi, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans at P? 0.05. The MICs and the MBCs of the extracts were determined by use of microtitre plate method with E. abysinnica, T. asiatica, Thylachium africanum, A. secundiflora, A. nilotica and Momordica charantia extracts showing good activity with MICS and MBCS of 4.687- 18.75 mg/ml in some test cultures. Klebsiella pneumoniae and C. albicans were mostly insensitive to extracts. Preliminary phytochemistry identified six phytochemicals to which tannins were common in most plant extracts. The data suggests that plant extracts could be a rich source of antimicrobial agents. Results also provide an indication of merit in their ethnomedicinal use. Download
8PHM-03-02EFFICACY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY COMMUNITIES AIn Africa more than 70% of the people refer to ethnomedicine for their health issues. With the emergence of new diseases and drug resistance to infections, traditional medicine should be given more attention in modern research and development. Tuberculosis (TB), a deadly infectious disease that annually kills about 3 million people worldwide is complicated. This is due to significant toxicity, emergence of multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB) and extensively drug resistant TB (XDR-TB) and lengthy therapy which creates poor patient compliance. There is also a major therapeutic problem due to emergence of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and other ß-lactamase producers. Diarrhoeal diseases are responsible for 4.6 million deaths every year. These highlight the need to develop novel drugs. Natural products provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads because of the unmatched chemical diversity. This study evaluated the antimicrobial potential of 34 medicinal plants used by communities living around the Lake Victoria region and the Samburu Community of northern Kenya, following an ethnobotanical survey. Plants were collected and identified at the Department of Pharmacy and Complimentary Alternative Medicine, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya; in whose herbarium voucher specimens were deposited. Methanolic extracts from plants were tested against four strains of Mycobacteria (Mycobacteria tuberculosis, M. kansasii, M. fortuitum, and M. smegmatis) obtained from Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Nairobi, Kenya. BACTEC MGIT 960 system was used. Salmonella typhi (clinical isolate), Klebsiella pneumoniae (clinical isolate), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 25852), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 20591) and Candida albicans (ATCC EK138), obtained from Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were also screened against using standard procedures. The crude extracts were analyzed for presence of phytochemicals. Croton macrostachyus, Vernonia amygdalina, Toddalia asiatica, Aloe secundiflora, Cordia sinensis, and Euphorbia scarlatina gave strong antimycobacterial activity (zero GUs) against M. kansasii, at all concentrations used. Entada abysinnica, T. asiatica, Salvadora persica, C. sinensis, Scadoxus multiflorus and E. scarlatina extracts were active (zero GUs) against M. tuberculosis. Extracts from Carissa edulis, V. amygdalina, A. secundiflora, Pistacia aethiopica, S. persica, S. multiflorus, E. scarlatina, and Acacia nilotica were active (zero GUs) against M. fortuitum. Against M. smegmatis, Carissa edulis, V. amygdalina, A. secundiflora, S. persica, S. multiflorus, E. scarlatina and A. nilotica were active (zero GUs). Eurphobia scarlatina was active (Zero GUs) against all the strains of mycobacteria. There was significant difference of the means of the zones of inhibition of the S. typhi, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans at P? 0.05. The MICs and the MBCs of the extracts were determined by use of microtitre plate method with E. abysinnica, T. asiatica, Thylachium africanum, A. secundiflora, A. nilotica and Momordica charantia extracts showing good activity with MICS and MBCS of 4.687- 18.75 mg/ml in some test cultures. Klebsiella pneumoniae and C. albicans were mostly insensitive to extracts. Preliminary phytochemistry identified six phytochemicals to which tannins were common in most plant extracts. The data suggests that plant extracts could be a rich source of antimicrobial agents. Results also provide an indication of merit in their ethnomedicinal use. Download
9PHM-03-02EFFICACY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY COMMUNITIES AIn Africa more than 70% of the people refer to ethnomedicine for their health issues. With the emergence of new diseases and drug resistance to infections, traditional medicine should be given more attention in modern research and development. Tuberculosis (TB), a deadly infectious disease that annually kills about 3 million people worldwide is complicated. This is due to significant toxicity, emergence of multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB) and extensively drug resistant TB (XDR-TB) and lengthy therapy which creates poor patient compliance. There is also a major therapeutic problem due to emergence of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and other ß-lactamase producers. Diarrhoeal diseases are responsible for 4.6 million deaths every year. These highlight the need to develop novel drugs. Natural products provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads because of the unmatched chemical diversity. This study evaluated the antimicrobial potential of 34 medicinal plants used by communities living around the Lake Victoria region and the Samburu Community of northern Kenya, following an ethnobotanical survey. Plants were collected and identified at the Department of Pharmacy and Complimentary Alternative Medicine, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya; in whose herbarium voucher specimens were deposited. Methanolic extracts from plants were tested against four strains of Mycobacteria (Mycobacteria tuberculosis, M. kansasii, M. fortuitum, and M. smegmatis) obtained from Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Nairobi, Kenya. BACTEC MGIT 960 system was used. Salmonella typhi (clinical isolate), Klebsiella pneumoniae (clinical isolate), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 25852), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 20591) and Candida albicans (ATCC EK138), obtained from Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were also screened against using standard procedures. The crude extracts were analyzed for presence of phytochemicals. Croton macrostachyus, Vernonia amygdalina, Toddalia asiatica, Aloe secundiflora, Cordia sinensis, and Euphorbia scarlatina gave strong antimycobacterial activity (zero GUs) against M. kansasii, at all concentrations used. Entada abysinnica, T. asiatica, Salvadora persica, C. sinensis, Scadoxus multiflorus and E. scarlatina extracts were active (zero GUs) against M. tuberculosis. Extracts from Carissa edulis, V. amygdalina, A. secundiflora, Pistacia aethiopica, S. persica, S. multiflorus, E. scarlatina, and Acacia nilotica were active (zero GUs) against M. fortuitum. Against M. smegmatis, Carissa edulis, V. amygdalina, A. secundiflora, S. persica, S. multiflorus, E. scarlatina and A. nilotica were active (zero GUs). Eurphobia scarlatina was active (Zero GUs) against all the strains of mycobacteria. There was significant difference of the means of the zones of inhibition of the S. typhi, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans at P? 0.05. The MICs and the MBCs of the extracts were determined by use of microtitre plate method with E. abysinnica, T. asiatica, Thylachium africanum, A. secundiflora, A. nilotica and Momordica charantia extracts showing good activity with MICS and MBCS of 4.687- 18.75 mg/ml in some test cultures. Klebsiella pneumoniae and C. albicans were mostly insensitive to extracts. Preliminary phytochemistry identified six phytochemicals to which tannins were common in most plant extracts. The data suggests that plant extracts could be a rich source of antimicrobial agents. Results also provide an indication of merit in their ethnomedicinal use. Download
10EBH-04-01Diffusive Flux Modeling of Non Point Source Pollut: In this study 68 samples were collected at Gaba landing site in Uganda during a rainy season and were analyzed for nutrients, namely, Ammonia, Nitrite, Nitrate, and Phosphate. In addition, portable meters were used to measure Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Dissolved Oxygen (DO) instantaneously at point of sample collection. Within the lake, samples were taken at for horizontal transects of 10 metres (m) interval over a distance of 50 m from the shore where surface runoff was released. At each 10 m sampling point, three samples were drawn at vertical distances of 0.5 m, 1.0 m and 1.5 m from water surface using a hand pump with graduated delivery pipe. This paper presents the results obtained from the application of two alternative expressions, fick’s law and Fokker-Planck law to gain insight into the pollutants diffusive flux patterns within the lake. We conclude that in general the Fokker-Planck model should be given preference, in modelling Ammonia and Phosphate flux profiles while Fickian model should be deployed in modelling DO, TDS, Nitrites and Nitrates.
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11PHM-03-03Integrated Risk Assessment and Management of PolluLake Victoria is the second largest freshwater lake in the world covering a surface area of 68,000 km². It is distributed among Tanzania (52%), Uganda (42%) and Kenya (6%). The problem of pollution of Lake Victoria and the Basin is of paramount importance to five countries of East Africa. The lake is a shared resources amongst the three countries of Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania and although Burundi and Rwanda do not share the Lake Victoria directly with the other Partner States, the health of Lake Victoria Basin is a great concern to all the five countries because the lake’s drainage basin area of 193,000 km2 is shared amongst the countries with Tanzania occupying 44 %, Kenya 22 %, Uganda 16 %, Burundi 7 % and Rwanda 11 % (Yanda, et al., 2001). All the five East Africa countries therefore have a lot of stake in matters related to Lake Victoria water, the basin and the people living in the basin.

Lake Victoria Drainage Basin (LVDB) support a range of socio-economic activities including agriculture, mining, agro-industries and other processing and manufacturing industries, which provide means of livelihood to nearly 40 million people in the basin. The exploitation and use of the many resources in LVDB have placed pressure on them leading to low productivity from the land despite application of fertilizers and pesticides. The inputs to improve productivity and the exploitation of land resources have lead to accumulation of pollutants and nutrients in the waters of the lake leading for example to proliferation of water hyacinth. To improve employment opportunities, agro-based industries have been developed with marked urban growth and settlement but the effluents and sewerage discharges they release is stressing the hydro-ecosystem significantly contributing to high levels of pollution and affecting the health of the communities using the water of the lake.
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12PHM-07-01Gaps, barriers and bottlenecks to sustainable land management (SLM) adoption in UgandaLand degradation is a global problem and a great challenge to sustaining the biological, economic and social services provided by various ecosystems. This work assessed the causes of land degradation in Uganda and identified gaps, barriers and bottlenecks that hinder sustainable land management programmes adoption. The major human-induced types of land degradation in Uganda included soil erosion, soil fertility decline and habitat loss. The findings of this study also point to the fact that, the decline in soil fertility affected about 88% of the rural population that subsist on less than 2 ha per family constituting over three million small-scale holdings. In addition, this work traced the various policies, plans, programmes and strategic frameworks formulated during the period of economic growth in Uganda and assessed the main constraints therein that hinder up/out scaling best land
management practices
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13PHM-07-01Bio-Remediation and Physicochemical Interaction of Experimentally Contaminated Soils in Uganda with DieselThis study was conducted for a period of 4 weeks to monitor and evaluate the process of bio-stimulation and natural recovery rates in terms of bacteria and fungi communities to diesel contaminated soils. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to measure pH, moisture content, Potassium (K), Phosphorous (P), Organic Nitrogen (ON), Organic Carbon (OC), Organic Matter (OM), fungi and bacteria cells before and after soils were intentionally contaminated with diesel. The results of this study showed that treatment level, K, P and pH have a positive effect on the number of bacterial cells whereas moisture content, sand and clay particles impact negatively. A correlation coefficient of R2 = -0.93 was obtained between time and OC, OM, ON while OC, OM, ON and bacteria showed an R2 = -0.58. Three conclusions can be drawn based on this study. One, by week 4, bacterial cells counts had doubled. Two, by week 4,bacterial counts numerically outnumbered fungal cells. Three, the increase in both bacterial and fungal cells was accompanied with a decrease in OM, OC and ON. This means that both bacterial and fungal cells had adapted by week 4.Download
14PHM-07-01Qualitative Determination of Methane Gas at Selected Sites in Kampala City, UgandaSolid Waste (WS) sorting at primary source, collection, transportation and disposal are a challenge in many cities in the developing world. Experiences from the developed world indicate that planning, education, enforcement and resources are needed to effectively manage SW. Poor SW management is responsible for many diseases especially in the developing world. Taking Kampala as a case study, with a population of 1.2 million people, SW is deposed off in public landfills, and open dumps near and/or burnt in residential areas. SW in landfills emit significant amounts of a potent greenhouse gas, methane. Studies from elsewhere have demonstrated that this contributes to the greenhouse effect and global warming. However, most of the developed methods to determine methane gas are expensive and requirement cumbersome sample preparation procedures. More often than not, such equipments are not present in many developing countries. As such data on methane gas emissions in Kampala city and Uganda as a whole are scarce and those that are available are models based on other country estimates A Gas chromatography equipped with a Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) method was used to make a qualitative study of methane gas generated from SW in Kampala City so as to inform the relevant decision makers on the need to take appropriate measures to reduce open environment methane emissions at dumping sites.Download
15NRM-07-02Changing Trends of Natural Resources Degradation in Kagera Basin: Case Study of Kagera Sub-Basin, Uganda In many respects, river basins are extremely convenient natural resources management units and hence calls for an inte- grated approach in case of transboundary nature. Environmental resources in Kagera basin are under great threat due to demographic factors leading to wide spread environmental degradation. Land degradation and biodiversity loss are cen- tral issues in the basin, but the extent and severity of the degradation pressures are not yet clearly illustrated and their implications largely unknown. To date, natural resource mapping in Kagera basin has been based on isolated case stud- ies for specific purposes and not much has been done in mapping resources and classification of resources degradation by remote sensing applications considering the whole basin. In this study, basin-wide mapping approach was adopted and hot spot areas associated with natural resources use in the basin identified and trends over time established. How- ever, this paper presents results from Kagera River sub-basin, Uganda. Mapping exercise was done by using landsat images and aerial photos of Kagera basin covering the years 1984-2002. Overall, bushland in Kagera sub-basin, Uganda increased by 78% and woodland cover showed mere 6% gain; but a 53% decrease in open woodland sub-type and 29% decrease in closed woodland. Significant shift occurred in cultivation with herbaceous crops (mainly banana) from year 1984-2002 moving from east to west of Kagera sub-basin, Uganda representing 167% increase. Area occupied by per-manent swamp decreased 31%. Over the same period, land cover change detection matrix indicates main land cover changes include conversion to bushland (59.34%) followed by conversion to grassland (7.29%) and cultivated land (7.16%), with only 24.19% of the land cover remaining unchanged. It is concluded that the observed changes are, a re-sult of human-induced factors and show unsustainable utilization of natural resources as most of the changes make the land susceptible to degradation.Download
16FAT-08-03Poverty in Selected Tanzanian and Ugandan Fish Landing Sites in Lake Victoria Basin: A Multidimensional Analysis Using the Fuzzy Sets ApproachIt is increasingly being realized that poverty is a very complex, multi-dimensional concept that has many determinants, and is about much more than just low incomes. Poverty in fishing communities, as in other sectors, is difficult to measure. The few studies that have been undertaken have often focused just on income rather than on a broader concept of poverty. This paper is based on a study conducted in eight fish landing sites in the Lake Victoria Basin, in Tanzania and Uganda, from January to September 2009. The major objective of the study was to find out the livelihood strategies pursued by households in these landings. Data related to different aspects of household poverty were also collected. The multidimensional poverty analysis using fuzzy sets was carried out to identify those non-monetary variables for which the households are deprived most. Forty four percent of the households in Ugandan landings and 38% in Tanzania are structurally poor. In Uganda the variables for which the households are deprived most are availability of credit, owning of a vehicle and doing business. In Tanzania, the variables are owning of household furniture, the quality of the dwelling units and having a clean source of drinking water. The study recommends that households and policy makers in the two countries exert extra effort to reduce deprivations in these variables
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17LUO-04-04GROWTH PERFORMANCE, YIELDS AND ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF NILE TILAPIA OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS AND KALES BRASSICA OLERACEA CULTURED UNDER VEGETABLE-FISH CULTURE INTEGRATIONAn experiment was conducted for 210 days to demonstrate the role of vegetable-fish culture integration in the growth, yields and economic benefits of fish and vegetables. Two 200 m2 earthen fishponds were stocked with Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus at 20,000 fish fingerlings per hectare. Pond A was fertilized with chicken manure and stocked fish fed on 35% crude protein supplementary diet referred to here as treated fish pond (TFP). Another fish pond was not fertilized and the fish stocked in it did not receive any supplementary diet referred to here as non treated fish pond (NTFP). Twelve vegetable plots of 7.2 x 3 m were planted with kale seedlings at a spacing of 0.45 x 0.6 m. The first, second and third sets of three vegetable plots were irrigated by water from stream (SW), treated fish pond (TFP) and non treated fish pond (NTFP) respectively. The last three vegetable plots were not irrigated (NI). Sampling of kale leaves was done by removal of the lowest three leaves per plant every four days. Results showed that fish reared under integrated systems attained significantly higher growth than those reared under non integrated systems (t test, t=14.38, d.f. = 118, P<0.001). One way Analysis of Variance showed a significant difference in kale leaf yields and income (ANOVA: F=63.17;P<0.05; d.f.=3) among plots receiving different sources of water with plots receiving water from treated fish pond (TFP) attaining highest yield and income. Gross and net yields of 2,806.969±198 and 2706.569±194 kgha-1 (for fish) and 51,970.49 and 51,968.63 kgha-1 (for vegetables) respectively attained were highest from integrated than non-integrated systems. Partial enterprise budget analysis showed that net returns were higher from integrated than non integrated systems. Results from this study demonstrate that fish farmers could improve yields and profits by integrating fish farming with other on-farm activities.Download
18EBH-08-02Chemical composition of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil and its effect on mycotoxigenic Aspergillus speciesThis study evaluated the antifungal activity of essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae) against five mycotoxigenic species of the genus Aspergillus (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus) isolated from maize samples. The oil of C. citratus was obtained by hydro-distillation and analysed by Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The oil was dominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons which accounted for 94.25% of the total oil and characterised by a high percentage of geranial (39.53%), neral (33.31%), and myrecene (11.41%). The antifungal activity tests showed that the oil was active against all the five Aspergillus species. The extent of inhibition of fungal growth was dependent on the concentration of the oil. The activity of the oil against the mycotoxigenic fungi had Minimun Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values ranging from 15 to 118 mg/ml. These results show that the essential oil of C. citratus has antifungal activities against fungi that are the producers of poisonous mycotoxins found in foods. This oil can be used in food preservation systems to inhibit the growth of moulds and retard subsequent mycotoxin productionDownload
19WBH-04-03INDIGENOUS OIL CROPS AS A SOURCE FOR PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL IN KENYAIn this study, oils extracted from four crops, Jatropha curcas L., Croton megalocarpus Hutch,Calodendrum capense (L.f.) Thunb. (cape chestnut) and Cocos nucifera L. (coconut) were transesterified in methanol using sodium hydroxide as a catalyst. Methyl esters obtained were characterized by GC-MS and further tested for fuel properties relative to convectional diesel fuels (automotive and kerosene). Methyl esters of commercial oils: sunflower and soybean were also tested for fuel properties for comparison. Some of parameters tested included kinematic viscosity, flash point, distillation temperatures, copper corrosion, cetane number, ash content, and gross heating value. The results showed hexadecanoate and octadecanoate were common fatty acids esters identified in the four analyzed methyl esters. Total unsaturation was highest for Croton ester with 86.6 %, Jatropha and C. capense esters had unsaturation of 65.2 % and 61.2 %, respectively, while coconut ester recorded only 2.8 %. The ester viscosities at 40 °C were with range of 4.16-4.63 mm2/s except coconut ester with viscosity 2.71 mm2/s, which is close to that of kerosene 2.35 mm2/s. The esters were found to be less volatile that diesel fuels with coconut esters registering as most volatile among the esters. Esters of sunflower and soybean have their volatility very close to that of Jatropha ester. The flash points of the esters were typically much higher (> 100 °C) than petroleum diesels, automotives and kerosene (74 and 45.5 °C, respectively). Jatropha, sunflower and soybean esters passed the ASTM standard D6751 for flash point; 130 °C minimum, all the esters however were within the European standard EN-14214 for biodiesel of above 101 °C. The density of the esters was found to be 2-4 % higher than that of petroleum automotive diesel and 10-12 % more than that of kerosene. The heating values of the esters were however 12 % lower than diesel fuels on average. In general, coconut esters were found to compare well with kerosene while the rest of the esters showed properties very close to that of automotive diesel and can thus be used as neat or blended fuels in diesel engines without any modificationsDownload
20EBH-05-01The Ethnomedicine of the Haya people of Bugabo ward, Kagera Region, north western TanzaniaBackground: The Kagera region, in north western Tanzania, is endowed with a strong culture of traditional medicine that is well supported by a rich diversity of medicinal plants. However, most of the plants in this region have not been documented nor evaluated for safety and efficacy. As an initiative in that direction, this study documented the knowledge on medicinal plant use by traditional healers of Bugabo Ward in Bukoba District.
Methods: Key informants were selected with the help of local government officials and information on their knowledge and use of plants for therapeutic purposes was gathered using a semi-structured interview format.
Results: In this study 94 plant species representing 84 genera and 43 families were found to be commonly used in the treatment of a variety of human ailments. The family Asteraceae had the highest number of species being used as traditional medicines. The study revealed that Malaria is treated using the highest number of different medicinal species (30), followed by skin conditions (19), maternal illnesses and sexually transmitted diseases (14), respiratory diseases (11) and yellow fever, Herpes simplex and peptic ulcers (10). Majority of the species are used to treat less than five different diseases/conditions each and leaves were the most commonly used part, comprising 40% of all the reports on use of plant parts. Trees comprised the most dominant growth form among all plants used for medicinal purposes in the study area.
Conclusion: Bugabo Ward has a rich repository of medicinal plants and this reinforces the need for an extensive and comprehensive documentation of medicinal plants in the area and a concomitant evaluation of their biological activity as a basis for developing future medicines.
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